The Jerusalem crickets (genus Stenopelmatus; Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae) of California are poorly known taxonomically, and have remained virtually unstudied. Until recently, the group was thought to be represented by only 7 species, due to high phenotypic similarity. However, ongoing behavioral research by Dr. David Weissman (California Academy of Sciences) has uncovered many populations with unique mating songs. Based on his work, Weissman estimates that there may be as many as 30 to 50 “song species” throughout California, suggesting that Stenopelmatus has in fact undergone an extensive species radiation. One such song species (Stenopelmatus n. sp. “mahogany”) is found exclusively in Southern California on sandy soil substrates (oak woodland, riparian, chaparral and coastal sage scrub), ranging north to the Santa Monica Mountains, east to the San Gabriel, San Bernadino and San Jacinto Mountains and south to Torrey Pines State Park. The mahogany Jerusalem is physically quite distinct; it is the second largest insect species known in California, and lacks the abdominal striping pattern found in all other Stenopelmatus species.